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Understanding Depression

Understanding Depression [Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment]

Writen By: Faiza Saifur
Reviewed By: Huma Khan
Publish Date: June 28, 2024

Understanding depression is crucial for effective mental health support. The term “depression” refers to a mood disorder. It might be characterized as sadness, grief, or rage that interferes with daily tasks.

Also, it’s very common. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control, in 2019, 18.5% of American adults experienced the symptoms of depression at some point during the past two weeks.

Although there are similarities between depression and grief, sadness or grief experienced after a tragic incident or the loss of a loved one is not the same as depression. Grief does not include self-hatred or losing self-esteem, although depression frequently does.

Depression displays itself differently for each individual. Your daily tasks could be affected, leading to wasted time and reduced activity. Relationships and some chronic diseases may also be impacted.

Unveiling Depression

According to the American Psychiatric Association: “Depression (major depressive disorder) is a widespread and significant medical condition that has an adverse impact on one’s feelings, thoughts, and behavior. The good news is that it is also curable. Sadness and/or a loss of interest in previous hobbies are symptoms of depression. It can impair your ability to function both at home and at work and cause a number of mental and physical issues. 

Furthermore, they added: “Depression is thought to impact one in 15 adults (6.7%) each year. In addition, 16.6% of the population will experience depression at some point in their lives. Although it can strike at any moment, depression typically first manifests itself in late adolescence to mid-life. Depression is more common in women than in males. 

Exploring Treatment of Depression.

Psychotherapy: includes CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) or ITP (interpersonal therapy). These therapies provide individuals with some tools so that they can identify and change negative patterns, improve relationships, and cope with challenges. Medications: such as antidepressants can help to rebalance neurotransmitters in the brain. Other activities: Including regular exercise,  meditation, a healthy diet, adequate sleep, and stress reduction techniques can cure depression

Symptoms of Depression

You may have depression if you have undergone some of the warning signs and symptoms listed below nearly every day for at least two weeks:

  • Feeling sad, worried, or “empty”.
  • Feeling useless, pessimistic, and hopeless.
  • Crying a lot feeling upset, annoyed, or angry losing interest in activities and hobbies you once found enjoyable.
  • Reduced energy or tiredness.
  • Trouble with concentration, memory, or decision-making.
  • Slowing down your movement or speech.
  • Oversleeping, early morning awakenings, or inability to fall asleep. Changes in appetite or weight.
  • Persistent physical discomfort with no apparent cause that does not improve with therapy (headaches, aches or pains, digestive problems, cramps).
  • Self-harm, suicide attempts, or death-related thoughts.

Well consider that if some of these symptoms happen to you, it doesn’t mean you have depression but if they happen for an extended period of time, typically 2 weeks or longer, and are persistently impacting your daily routine, then it is advisable to seek professional help. 

Depression is different from Sadness

Understanding Depression is important. Research shows that Depression is not the kind of sadness set on by regret or loss. The loss of a loved one, losing a job, or ending a relationship are all difficult experiences for a person to go through. People frequently experience sadness or grief in reactions to such situations. When someone or something is lost, they typically describe oneself as “depressed.”

However, being sad is not the same as being depressed. Each person’s mourning process is unique, normal, and has certain traits in common with depression. Extreme grief and withdrawal from regular activities are two symptoms that depression and grieving have the capacity to produce.

Causes of Depression

Understanding depression causes

Biological Factors:

  1. Imbalances in neurotransmitters like serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine can disrupt emotional well-being.
  1. Additionally, genetic inclinations play a role, as individuals with a family history of depression or other mental health disorders may develop depression.

Psychological Factors:

  1. Low self-esteem and negative thinking patterns, such as persistent self-criticism, can make individuals more susceptible to depression.
  1. Past trauma or abuse can shape emotional responses, increasing the risk of depression.

Environmental Factors: 

  1. Life events like the loss of a loved one, divorce, or financial hardships can trigger depression. Chronic stress from work, relationships, or other factors can also contribute.
  1. Socioeconomic factors, such as poverty, unemployment, or lack of access to healthcare, can increase the risk of depression. Cultural influences, including societal expectations and stigma, also play a role.

Types of Depression.

Here are some common types of depression:

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): 

This is the most well-known form of depression. It involves experiencing persistent feelings of sadness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, low energy, difficulty concentrating, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, and possibly thoughts of self-harm or suicide.

Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD): 

Formerly known as dysthymia, PDD is characterized by a chronic low mood that lasts for at least two years. Symptoms may be less severe than MDD which is Major Depressive Disorder but are persistent and can significantly impact daily functioning.

Postpartum Depression (PPD): 

PPD occurs in women after giving birth. It involves feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that can interfere with the ability to care for oneself and the baby. PPD can occur within the first year after childbirth.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): 

SAD is a type of depression that occurs during certain seasons, typically fall and winter, when there is less sunlight. Symptoms may include low mood, increased sleep, weight gain, and decreased energy. Symptoms typically improve in the spring and summer.

Bipolar Disorder: 

Bipolar disorder involves cycles of depressive episodes and manic or hypomanic episodes. Depressive episodes in bipolar disorder share similar symptoms with MDD. Manic episodes are characterized by elevated mood, increased energy, racing thoughts, impulsivity, and risky behavior.

Psychotic Depression: 

This type of depression includes symptoms of severe depression along with features of psychosis. Psychosis may involve hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren’t there) or delusions (false beliefs).

Atypical Depression: 

Atypical depression is characterized by mood reactivity, meaning a person’s mood can improve in response to positive events or experiences. Other symptoms include increased appetite or weight gain, excessive sleep, heavy feeling in limbs, and sensitivity to rejection.

Situational Depression: 

Situational depression, also known as adjustment disorder with depressed mood, occurs as a response to a specific stressful event or situation, such as a divorce, loss of a job, or the death of a loved one.

It’s important to note that these are broad categories, and individuals may experience depression in different ways. A professional mental health evaluation can help determine the specific type of depression and guide appropriate treatment.

Treatment Options.


Psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, is a widely used and effective treatment for depression. It involves working with a trained therapist to explore and address the underlying causes of depression, develop coping strategies, and make positive changes in thoughts, behaviors, and relationships. Here are a few common types of psychotherapy used in depression treatment:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT focuses on identifying and challenging negative thought patterns and beliefs that contribute to depression. It helps individuals develop healthier and more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving. Through CBT, individuals learn practical skills to manage their emotions, improve problem-solving abilities, and gradually change unhelpful behaviors.
  • Interpersonal therapy (IPT): IPT focuses on improving interpersonal relationships and social support networks. It helps individuals address difficulties in communication, conflict resolution, and relationship dynamics. By exploring and resolving interpersonal problems, IPT aims to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance overall well-being.
  • Psychodynamic therapy: Psychodynamic therapy delves into unconscious thoughts and past experiences that may contribute to depression. It aims to help individuals gain insight into their emotions, relationships, and unresolved conflicts. By understanding the root causes of their depression, individuals can work toward healing and personal growth.


In some cases, medication may be prescribed to alleviate depressive symptoms. It’s important to note that medication should always be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional. Here are two common types of medications used in depression treatment:

  • Antidepressants: Antidepressant medications work by balancing certain chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine. They can help improve mood, reduce anxiety, and alleviate other depressive symptoms. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are among the commonly prescribed antidepressants.
  • Other medications used in depression treatment: In some cases, healthcare professionals may prescribe other medications, such as atypical antipsychotics or mood stabilizers, either as standalone treatments or in combination with antidepressants. These medications may be used when depression is accompanied by other conditions, such as bipolar disorder or psychotic features.

Lifestyle Changes

In addition to therapy and medication, making positive lifestyle changes can greatly support depression treatment. Here are some key areas to focus on:

  • Exercise and physical activity: Regular exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on mood and overall mental well-being. Engaging in physical activity releases endorphins, which are natural mood boosters. It can also help reduce stress, improve sleep, and increase self-confidence. Finding activities you enjoy and incorporating them into your routine can be beneficial.
  • Healthy diet and nutrition: A balanced diet plays an important role in supporting mental health. Including nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats can provide essential nutrients for brain function. Avoiding excessive sugar, caffeine, and processed foods is also beneficial, as they can negatively impact mood and energy levels.
  • Sleep hygiene: Prioritizing good sleep habits is crucial for managing depression. Aim for a consistent sleep schedule, create a comfortable sleep environment, practice relaxation techniques before bed, and limit exposure to electronic devices that can interfere with sleep. Quality sleep helps restore energy, improve mood, and enhance overall well-being.

 Self-Help Strategies

I often encourage individuals with depression to explore self-help strategies alongside professional treatment. These strategies can empower individuals to take an active role in their well-being and complement the therapeutic process. Here are some effective self-help strategies:

Building a support system

Surrounding yourself with a supportive network of friends, family, or support groups can provide a valuable source of encouragement and understanding. Sharing your feelings and experiences with trusted individuals can offer comfort and help alleviate the sense of isolation that often accompanies depression.

Practicing self-care:

Self-care is essential for mental health. Engaging in activities that nurture your mind, body, and soul can have a positive impact on your overall well-being. This can include practicing relaxation techniques, engaging in hobbies you enjoy, taking breaks when needed, and prioritizing time for rest and rejuvenation.

Setting realistic goals:

Setting achievable goals, no matter how small, can provide a sense of purpose and accomplishment. Start with realistic and manageable goals that align with your current capabilities and energy levels. Celebrate each milestone along the way, as each step forward is a meaningful achievement.

Engaging in enjoyable activities:

Depression can dampen your sense of pleasure and interest in activities. Actively seeking out and engaging in activities that bring you joy can help counteract this. Whether it’s listening to music, reading, spending time in nature, or pursuing creative outlets, finding activities that uplift your mood and spark your passion can make a significant difference.

Managing stress and anxiety:

Stress and anxiety often accompany depression and can intensify its symptoms. Implementing stress management techniques, such as deep breathing exercises, mindfulness meditation, or journaling, can help you cope with daily stressors. It’s important to identify triggers and develop healthy coping mechanisms that work best for you.

Remember, self-help strategies should complement, not replace, professional treatment. If your symptoms persist or worsen, it’s crucial to seek guidance from a qualified mental health professional. Together, with the support of therapy and these self-help strategies, you will be able to cope with depression.


Why is understanding Depression important?

Understanding depression is important because it helps us support people who feel really sad and hopeless. When we understand what they’re going through, we can show them kindness and care. It’s also important because it stops people from thinking bad things about them and makes it easier for them to ask for help. When we understand depression, we can notice the signs and help them get the right treatment. 

We can also teach others about it, so everyone knows how to be helpful and make things better. By understanding depression, we can be good friends and make the world a nicer place for everyone.

Can anyone experience Depression?

Absolutely! Depression doesn’t discriminate; it can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. It’s a widespread mental health condition that can sneak up on anyone, no matter who they are.

Is Depression curable?

While depression doesn’t have a magical cure, it’s highly treatable. With the right diagnosis, support, and treatment, many individuals can bounce back and manage their symptoms like a pro. We’re talking about therapy, medication, or a fabulous combo of both!

How long does Depression last?

It varies from person to person. Some individuals experience shorter episodes, lasting just a few weeks or months. But, there are others who fight depression for ages. But fear not! Early intervention and proper treatment can help shrink the timeline and ease those pesky symptoms.


Understanding depression is a key piece of the puzzle, not only for individuals sailing through these stormy seas but also for their loved ones and society as a whole. By recognizing the symptoms, digging into the causes, and seeking the right treatment, individuals can reclaim the helm of their lives and sail towards a brighter, more fulfilling future. Remember, reaching out for support is a brave step on the journey to healing and recovery.

Understanding depression is a special and important journey that helps us care better for people with mental health problems. It’s not just about knowing the signs, but really getting why it happens and how it affects someone. When we truly understand, we can support them in a way that makes a big difference. By understanding depression, we also break down the unkind ideas and make it easier for them to ask for help. Together, we can create a kinder world where we all take care of each other’s mental health.